People in motion | Political economics


Immigration has enabled millions of people to escape poverty, coercion and conflict. Every day, people around the world make one of the most difficult decisions to leave their homes in search of a safer and better life. These journeys, which all begin with hope for a better future, can be dangerous.

The causes of migration from ancient to recent times and issues related to migration, including refugees and asylum seekers, settlement, brain drain and trafficking were discussed at length.

The World Migration Report 2020 revealed that there were approximately 281 million international migrants in the world that year, or almost 3.6% of the world’s population. Most people in the world have had the experience of leaving where they grew up. Maybe they will only move to the next village or town. But some people have to leave their country, sometimes for a short time, but sometimes forever. About 31% of international migrants in the world reside in Asia.

The Covid-19 pandemic has highlighted the links between migration and mobility, with disease-related travel restrictions preventing hundreds of millions of people from traveling for months. Thousands of migrants have been stranded in need of assistance. The results can be seen in economic, social, cultural, political and demographic challenges. Understanding shifts in scale, emerging trends, and shifts from demographic issues to global social and economic transformations can help us make sense of the changing world we live in and plan for the future.

Women make up just under half of the international migrant population, yet gendered social and cultural norms affect migrant women and girls more negatively than men. A better understanding of migration as a gendered phenomenon can enable states to better protect migrant women and girls against gender-based discrimination, abuse and violence. Between 2018 and 2021, an average of between 350,000 and 400,000 children per year are born into refugee life.

Turkey currently hosts the largest number of refugees, with 3.8 million people. Colombia is second with more than 1.8 million, including displaced Venezuelans. The majority are refugees from the Syrian civil war, numbering 3,591,892 as of June 2020. In 2018, UNHCR reported that Turkey hosted 63.4% of all registered Syrian refugees. The war in Ukraine has caused the most accelerating refugee crisis since World War II. The number of people who have fled Ukraine has reached 2.5 million. Nearly 2 million people are believed to be internally displaced, according to the UNHCR.

Promoting global peace and prosperity, managing calamities and disasters, and ensuring political stability and security are decisive steps in addressing the challenges of global, regional and internal migration.

Pakistan began admitting nearly three million Afghan refugees in 1979, before and after the start of the Soviet-Afghan war. At the end of 2001, there were more than four million refugees in Pakistan. Most have returned to Afghanistan since 2002, but 1,282,901 registered refugees remained in Pakistan as of May 2022. Currently, Pakistan is one of the top 10 emigration countries in the world.

Migration and urbanization have had a strong impact on Pakistan’s economy and development, including changes in labor market opportunities, family structures, education, health and labor management. environment, safety systems and governance. Since 1980, the number of people living in urban areas has more than tripled, from 22.4 million to 75.6 million in 2017. The urban population is estimated to increase from 32% in the 1998 census to 50% d ‘by 2030. .

Limited job opportunities, low rates of investment in public sector infrastructure and instability in the agricultural industry lead to significant migration of rural populations to major urban centres.

There is evidence that natural disasters, climate change and conflict are contributing factors to internal migration. The 2010 floods placed large numbers of farmers in vulnerable positions, forcing some to move to cities for alternative work. The war on terrorism and cross-border terrorism have unfortunately had major consequences on internal migration.

Internal migration in the country causes problems of poor sanitation and drinking water quality. Pollution is another result of anarchic and unplanned urbanization. Researchers have found that due to migration from rural to urban areas, city life is affected. When a large number of people migrate from their region to the region of other people, the culture also migrates with them. The impact of culture in any region has an impact on the people who live there. Many impacts come into existence from the change of language, costume, food, ritual, festival, marriage, profession, art, music and literature.

Pakistan has faced a series of displacement crises in recent years due to natural disasters and armed conflicts. In addition, 19 million people have been displaced by earthquakes and floods over the past seven years. These refugees and migrants have also suffered the negative economic impacts of lockdowns and travel restrictions in recent years. In addition to this, loss of income and insecurity of health care may have particularly affected migrant workers. They may also have experienced legal and social insecurity caused by the postponement of decisions on migration status or a reduction in employment, legal and administrative services.

Migration is a consequence of the unequal distribution of opportunities. People tend to move from a place of low opportunity and security to a place of higher opportunity and increased security. The results can be observed in economic, social, cultural, political and demographic terms. Promoting global peace and prosperity, managing calamities and disasters, and ensuring political stability and security are assertive measures to address the challenges of global, regional and internal migration.

The writer is a freelance playwright and journalist. He can be reached at [email protected] and his blog site:

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